miércoles, 27 de septiembre de 2017

Python programming books

Python programming books in PDF format.

Overriding Methods in C#

In addition to producing a new class based on an old one by adding additional features, you can modify existing behavior of the parent class.

If a method is defined in a derived class so that the name, return type, and argument list match exactly those of a method in the parent class, then the new method is said to override the old one.

The keyword virtual

In C#, a class can declare virtual methods, properties, and indexers, and derived classes can override the implementation of these function members.

The keyword virtual allows programmers to specify methods that a derived class can override, C# methods are non-virtual by default and must be explicitly declared as virtual.

The implementation of a non-virtual method is invariant: The implementation is the same whether the method is invoked on an instance of the class in which it is declared or an instance of derived class. In contrast, the implementation of a virtual method can be changed by derived classes.

The keyword override

To override a base-class method definition, a derived class must specify that the derived-class method overrides the base-class method with keyword override in the method header.

If the override modifier is not used, the new member hides the inherited member, and a compiler warning occurs. If a derived class attempts to override a non-virtual inherited member, a compiler error will occur. The following examples illustrate the using of virtual and override keywords.

Fig 1. Class diagram for Employee and Manager using Inheritance.


Listing 1: Sample code for Employee class


Listing 2: Sample code for Manager class


Consider these sample methods in the Employee and Manager classes:
Fig 2. The GetDetails method of the Employee class.


Fig 3. The GetDetails method of the Manager class.


The Manager class has a GetDetails method by definition because it inherits one from the Employee class. However, the original method has been replaced, or overridden, by the derived class’s version.

Listing 3 A simple program to demonstrate how method overriding works.


Fig 4 The output of executing this program is the following.


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viernes, 15 de septiembre de 2017

Understanding Inheritance in C#

Inspired from biological modeling, inheritance allows new classes to be constructed that inherit characteristics (fields and methods) from ancestor classes while typically introducing more specialized characteristics, new fields, or methods. A subclass is logically considered to be a specialized version or extension of its parent and by inference its ancestor classes.

In programming, you often create a model of something, and then need a more specialized version of that original model.

Fig 1. Shows the UML class diagrams that model the Employee and Manager classes.


Listing 1. A possible implementation of Employee class.


Listing 2. A possible implementation of Manager class.


These codes illustrate the duplication of attributes between Manager class and the Employee class. Additionally, there could be a number of methods applicable to both classes. In object-oriented languages, special mechanisms are provided that enable you define a class in terms of a previously defined class.

One of its main mechanism is called Inheritance. Inheritance is a form of software reusability in which classes are created by absorbing an existing class’s data and behaviors and embellishing them with new capabilities. The next figure shows the diagram in which the Manager is a derived class of Employee base class.

Fig 2. Class diagram using Inheritance.


Listing 3. The Employee class.


Listing 4. The Manager class that inherits from class Employee.


Single Inheritance

The C# programming language permits a class to extend one other class only. This restriction is called single inheritance. With single inheritance, a class is derived from one base class. C# does not support multiple inheritance.

Once created, each derived class can become the base class for future derived classes. Typically, the derived class contains the behaviors of its base class. Therefore, a derived class is more specific than its base class and represents a more specialized group of objects.

The next image shows the base class Employee and three derived classes: Engineer, Manager and Secretary. The Manager is also the base class from which the derived class Director explicitly inherits.

Fig 3. An example Inheritance tree.


The Employee class contains three attributes (Name, Salary, and BirthDate), as well as one method (GetDetails). The Manager class inherits all of these members and specifies an additional attribute, department, as well as the GetDetails method. The Director class inherits all of the members of Employee and Manager and specifies a CarAllowance attribute and a new method, IncreaseAllowance.

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domingo, 3 de septiembre de 2017

Fetching JSON Data with Angular $http.get() function.

Angular has built-in support for communication with remote HTTP servers and includes some low-level methods of fetching and posting the data. Angular comes with the $http service which includes a few methods we can utilize with all verbs of the REST protocol.

We'll look at a example using the .$http.get() request. The $http.get() method accepts two parameters: URL and config object.

The first parameter URL is always required and the config is optional, the shortcut $http.get() method initiates a GET request to the server to retrieve data from the server. This example has the following files:

  • books.js: it contains the data in JSON format.
  • app.js: it contains the functional logic for the example
  • getexample.html: contains the front for the example

Fig.1. The source code for the JSON file


Fig 2. The source code for the app.js


In the previous example the controller defines a dependency to the $scope and the $http module. An HTTP GET request to the data “books.json” endpoint is carried out with the get method. It returns a $promise object with a success and error method.

Fig 3. The code for the web page


Fig 4. Running the example


If you open the web page up in your browser, you'll see a standard HTML button created, when you press the button the $http service makes an ajax call and set response to the scope's property books. Thus books can be used to draw a list in the HTML page.

Download the project for Visual Studio